The Google File System Part-4



8. RELATED WORK
Like other large distributed file systems such as AFS [5], GFS provides a location independent namespace which enables data to be moved transparently for load balance or fault tolerance. Unlike AFS, GFS spreads a file’s data across storage servers in a way more akin to xFS [1] and Swift [3] in order to deliver aggregate performance and increased fault tolerance. As disks are relatively cheap and replication is simpler than more sophisticated RAID [9] approaches, GFS currently uses only replication for redundancy and so consumes more raw storage than xFS or Swift. In contrast to systems like AFS, xFS, Frangipani [12], and Intermezzo [6], GFS does not provide any caching below the file system interface. Our target workloads have little reuse within a single application run because they either stream through a large data set or randomly seekwith in it and read small amounts of data each time. Some distributed file systems like Frangipani, xFS, Minnesota’s GFS[11] and GPFS [10] remove the centralized server and rely on distributed algorithms for consistency and management. We opt for the centralized approach in order to simplify the design, increase its reliability, and gain flexibility. In particular, a centralized master makes it much easier to implement sophisticated chunkpl acement and replication policies since the master already has most of the relevant information and controls how it changes. We address fault tolerance by keeping the master state small and fully replicated on other machines. Scalability and high availability (for reads) are currently provided by our shadow master mechanism. Updates to the master state are made persistent by appending to a write-ahead log. Therefore we could adapt a primary-copy scheme like the one in Harp [7] to provide high availability with stronger consistency guarantees than our current scheme. We are addressing a problem similar to Lustre [8] in terms of delivering aggregate performance to a large number of clients. However, we have simplified the problem significantly by focusing on the needs of our applications rather than building a POSIX-compliant file system. Additionally, GFS assumes large number of unreliable components and so fault tolerance is central to our design. GFS most closely resembles the NASD architecture [4]. While the NASD architecture is based on network-attached diskdri ves, GFS uses commodity machines as chunkservers, as done in the NASD prototype. Unlike the NASD work, our chunkservers use lazily allocated fixed-size chunks rather than variable-length objects. Additionally, GFS implements features such as rebalancing, replication, and recovery that are required in a production environment. Unlike Minnesota’s GFS and NASD, we do not seek to alter the model of the storage device. We focus on addressing day-to-day data processing needs for complicated distributed systems with existing commodity components. The producer-consumer queues enabled by atomic record appends address a similar problem as the distributed queues in River [2]. While River uses memory-based queues distributed across machines and careful data flow control, GFS uses a persistent file that can be appended to concurrently by many producers. The River model supports m-to-n distributed queues but lacks the fault tolerance that comes with persistent storage, while GFS only supports m-to-1 queues efficiently. Multiple consumers can read the same file, but they must coordinate to partition the incoming load. 9. CONCLUSIONS 
The Google File System demonstrates the qualities essential for supporting large-scale data processing workloads on commodity hardware. While some design decisions are specific to our unique setting, many may apply to data processing tasks of a similar magnitude and cost consciousness. We started by reexamining traditional file system assumptions in light of our current and anticipated application workloads and technological environment. Our observations have led to radically different points in the design space. We treat component failures as the norm rather than the exception, optimize for huge files that are mostly appended to (perhaps concurrently) and then read (usually sequentially), and both extend and relax the standard file system interface to improve the overall system. Our system provides fault tolerance by constant monitoring, replicating crucial data, and fast and automatic recovery. Chunkrep lication allows us to tolerate chunkserver
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
We wish to thankt he following people for their contributions to the system or the paper. Brain Bershad (our shepherd) and the anonymous reviewers gave us valuable comments and suggestions. Anurag Acharya, Jeff Dean, and David des- Jardins contributed to the early design. Fay Chang worked on comparison of replicas across chunkservers. Guy Edjlali worked on storage quota. Markus Gutschke worked on a testing frameworkan d security enhancements. David Kramer worked on performance enhancements. Fay Chang, Urs Hoelzle, Max Ibel, Sharon Perl, Rob Pike, and Debby Wallach commented on earlier drafts of the paper. Many of our colleagues at Google bravely trusted their data to a new file system and gave us useful feedback. Yoshka helped with early testing.
REFERENCES 
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